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In 1906, Alice Perry was the first woman in the world to graduate with a degree in engineering. She received her qualifications from Queens College, Galway (now N.U.I. Galway).

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lcdMore microcontroller devices are using 'smart LCD' displays to output visual information. The following discussion covers the connection of a Hitachi LCD display to a PIC microcontroller. LCD displays designed around Hitachi's LCD HD44780 module, are inexpensive, easy to use, and it is even possible to produce a readout using the 8 x 80 pixels of the display. Hitachi LCD displays have a standard ASCII set of characters plus Japanese, Greek and mathematical symbols.

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SPI - Serial Peripheral Interface

The Serial Peripheral Interface Bus or SPI bus is a synchronous serial data link standard which opererate in a full duplex mode. Devices communicate in master or slave mode where the master device initiates the data frame. Multiple slave devices are allowed with individual slave select lines with the chip select.




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microcontroller architecturWhat is a microcontroller?
The best way to explain what a microcontroller is, is to start with your computer. Your desktop computer (or laptop) is comprised of multiple parts, a CPU (such as a Pentium or Celeron), some RAM, a hard disk, a keyboard and mouse and a monitor screen. Programs are stored on the hard disk and run on the CPU, with temporary data stored in RAM. You can run multiple programs at a time by having one 'master program' called an operating system (such as Linux, Windows or Mac OS X) and that master program keeps track of things for you.

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Introduction to I2C

An Inter-IC bus is often used to communicate across circuit-board distances. Here's a primer on the protocol.
At the low end of the spectrum of communication options for "inside the box" communication is I2C ("eye-squared-see"). The name I2C is shorthand for a standard Inter-IC (integrated circuit) bus.
I2C provides good support for communication with various slow, on-board peripheral devices that are accessed intermittently, while being extremely modest in its hardware resource needs. It is a simple, low-bandwidth, short-distance protocol. Most available I2C devices operate at speeds up to 400Kbps, with some venturing up into the low megahertz range. I2C is easy to use to link multiple devices together since it has a built-in addressing scheme.

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