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Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) was one of the most well known inventors of all time with 1093 patents. During the whole of his life, Edison received only three months of formal schooling, and was dismissed from school as being retarded.
 

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switches

In electronics, a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system, such as a computer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit, such as a light switch. Automatically operated switches can be used to control the motions of machines, for example, to indicate that a garage door has reached its full open position or that a machine tool is in a position to accept another workpiece. Switches may be operated by process variables such as pressure, temperature, flow, current, voltage, and force, acting as sensors in a process and used to automatically control a system.

There are a lot of types of switches. We will explain a few common used in microcontroller based systems.

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plllogoA tutorial or overview about the basic concepts of a phase locked loop, PLL, detailing how it works and how they may be designed.

The phase locked loop or PLL is a particularly flexible circuit building block. The phase locked loop, PLL can be used for a variety of radio frequency applications, and accordingly the PLL is found in many radio receivers as well as other pieces of equipment.

 

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A relay is an electromagnetically controlled on-off switch, used to isolate control electrical circuit from part of circuit that contains load. Current flows through the coil of the relay and creates a magnetic field which moves a lever and changes the switch contacts.

Relay                   relay                        

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Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Tutorial

 

pwmlogo

Pulse Width Modulation – Using digital pulses to create some analog value other than just ‘high’ and ‘low’ signal levels. Many digital systems are powered by a 5-Volt power supply, so if you filter a signal that has a 50% duty cycle you get an average voltage of 2.5 Volts. Other duty cycles produce any voltage in the range of 0 to 100% of the ‘high’ voltage, depending upon the PWM resolution.

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