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In 1800 Count Alassandro Volta made the "voltaic pile", a battery. His experiments,along with Luigi Galvani, applying electricity to frogs legs and making them jump when touched by an electric wire prompted Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley to write FRANKENSTEIN in 1818.

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I only have little information on this protocol. It is used in VCRs that are produced by Sharp, that is why I gave it the name Sharp protocol.

    8 bit command, 5 bit address length
    Pulse distance modulation
    Carrier frequency of 38kHz
    Bit time of 1ms or 2ms

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To my knowledge the protocol I describe here was developed by NEC. I've seen very similar protocol descriptions on the internet, and there the protocol is called Japanese Format.
I do admit that I don't know exactly who developed it. What I do know is that it is used in my late VCR produced by Sanyo and was marketed under the name of Fisher. NEC manufactured the remote control IC.

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The Nokia Remote Control protocol uses 17 bits to transmit the IR commands, which immediately explains the name of this protocol.
The protocol was designed for Nokia consumer electronics. It was used during the last few years in which Nokia produced TV sets and VCRs. Also the sister brands like Finlux and Salora used this protocol. Nowadays the protocol is mainly used in Nokia satellite receivers and set-top boxes.

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I call this the X-Sat protocol because it is used in the X-Sat CDTV 310 Satellite receiver made by the French company Xcom. This protocol is probably also used in other X-Sat receivers, but I have no means to verify that. I haven't seen this protocol anywhere else but that doesn't guarantee that it is unique to the X-Sat brand.

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