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In 1791 Luigi Galvani published his discovery of bioelectricity, demonstrating that electricity was the medium by which nerve cells passed signals to the muscles.

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The Nokia Remote Control protocol uses 17 bits to transmit the IR commands, which immediately explains the name of this protocol.
The protocol was designed for Nokia consumer electronics. It was used during the last few years in which Nokia produced TV sets and VCRs. Also the sister brands like Finlux and Salora used this protocol. Nowadays the protocol is mainly used in Nokia satellite receivers and set-top boxes.

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I call this the X-Sat protocol because it is used in the X-Sat CDTV 310 Satellite receiver made by the French company Xcom. This protocol is probably also used in other X-Sat receivers, but I have no means to verify that. I haven't seen this protocol anywhere else but that doesn't guarantee that it is unique to the X-Sat brand.

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To my knowledge the protocol I describe here was developed by NEC. I've seen very similar protocol descriptions on the internet, and there the protocol is called Japanese Format.
I do admit that I don't know exactly who developed it. What I do know is that it is used in my late VCR produced by Sanyo and was marketed under the name of Fisher. NEC manufactured the remote control IC.

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JVC also has its own IR protocol, although I have seen several different protocols being used in a diversity of JVC equipment. This is probably the case for equipment which JVC haven't made themselves. Most genuine JVC equipment is controlled by the protocol described on this page though.
All information about this protocol was collected using a JVC PTU94023B service remote control and a digital storage oscilloscope.

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  • Communication


    For communication with outside world and other components microcontroller uses many different kinds of communication. Here you will find detailed explanation on how each of these communication protocols. Details of principles how the work, what you must know before you can use them. And when finished here you can go to tutorial sections for specific family and get complete example codes and detailed description on specific microcontroller family. These are UART, I2C, SPI, USB…


  • Measurement


    Basic functions that every device does are measurement and control. That is why it is important to know how to properly measure something and what sensor to use.. Here you will find explanations on these topics to help you with implementing hardware for your microcontroller project.


  • control


    As previously mentioned Control is one of most important things in every project. Weather you need to control some DC motor using PWM, timer circuits with NE555, Using servo motors, Using PID regulation or any kind or regulation you will find useful articles here describing basic term from this are that you need to know before you can start making your project. Here are mentioned only few of areas this category of covers. PLL frequency regulation… list is endless. When you get the basics you can get example codes written in microcontroller C compiles on tutorials page or find complete project with source code and all documentation in projects section of the site.


  • Other


    General descriptions not fitted in any specific category from field of electronics.


  • Microcontrollers


    General explanations about microcontroller specific topics. What are GPIO pins, TTL levels, Reset circuit.. If you have just started to work with microcontrollers and do not have much knowledge about them than here are useful texts to read before you go to tutorials or complete projects section of and continue learning about world of intelligent electronics.


  • IR
  • Gas Sensors


    This category contain articles about gas sensors, their principles of work. There are several common techniques of gas sensing, such as electrochemical, catalytic, infrared etc. Found out more information about carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, LPG, oxygen and many more gas sensors. Explanation about common schematics and microcontroller usage are given. Visit