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The ITT IR protocol is a very old one. It differs from other protocols in that it does not use a modulated carrier frequency to send the IR messages. A single command is transmitted by a total of 14 pulses with a width of 10µs each. The command is encoded by varying the distance between the pulses.
This protocol used to be very reliable and consumes very little power ensuring long battery life. One big disadvantage of this old protocol is that it sometimes triggers false commands, for instance when you put a laptop computer with an active IRDA port close to the IR receiver.

Many consumer electronics brands used this protocol in Europe. Among them were: ITT, Greatz, Schaub-Lorenz, Finlux, Luxor, Salora, Oceanic and later also Nokia, to name but a few.

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PS2 Mouse2This article attempts to explain every aspect of the PS/2 mouse interface including the physical and electrical interface, low-level protocol, modes of operation, commands, and extensions.It is exelent article to get details on mouse register meaning and commands format. I recoment you to read it before you start example for AVR PS2 mouse readout.

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crcAll 1-Wire® devices, including iButton® devices, contain an 8-byte unique registration number in read-only memory (ROM). This registration number is used as a unique network address on a 1-Wire bus. To ensure data communication integrity, one byte of each registration number is a DOW CRC byte. This article explains how to calculate this 8-bit DOW CRC and gives example code that is used in iButton AVR readout example project used with DS1990R-F5.

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logo ps2In this article is given detailed explanation of PS/2 hardware and protocol details for communication with PS/2 devices. Those devices are usually mouses and keyboards. If you want quick start example for microcontroller keyboard key readout with full AVR codevision project provided, check out AVR - PS/2 keyboard key readout article and in  here you have PS/2 mouse AVR microcontroller readout exaple with complete source code and video presentation.

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  • Communication


    For communication with outside world and other components microcontroller uses many different kinds of communication. Here you will find detailed explanation on how each of these communication protocols. Details of principles how the work, what you must know before you can use them. And when finished here you can go to tutorial sections for specific family and get complete example codes and detailed description on specific microcontroller family. These are UART, I2C, SPI, USB…


  • Measurement


    Basic functions that every device does are measurement and control. That is why it is important to know how to properly measure something and what sensor to use.. Here you will find explanations on these topics to help you with implementing hardware for your microcontroller project.


  • control


    As previously mentioned Control is one of most important things in every project. Weather you need to control some DC motor using PWM, timer circuits with NE555, Using servo motors, Using PID regulation or any kind or regulation you will find useful articles here describing basic term from this are that you need to know before you can start making your project. Here are mentioned only few of areas this category of covers. PLL frequency regulation… list is endless. When you get the basics you can get example codes written in microcontroller C compiles on tutorials page or find complete project with source code and all documentation in projects section of the site.


  • Other


    General descriptions not fitted in any specific category from field of electronics.


  • Microcontrollers


    General explanations about microcontroller specific topics. What are GPIO pins, TTL levels, Reset circuit.. If you have just started to work with microcontrollers and do not have much knowledge about them than here are useful texts to read before you go to tutorials or complete projects section of and continue learning about world of intelligent electronics.


  • IR
  • Gas Sensors


    This category contain articles about gas sensors, their principles of work. There are several common techniques of gas sensing, such as electrochemical, catalytic, infrared etc. Found out more information about carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, LPG, oxygen and many more gas sensors. Explanation about common schematics and microcontroller usage are given. Visit