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Some studies estimate that as much as 75% of old,used equipment is in storage, where it takes up space and becomes more obsolete and less valuable

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microcontroller-pinoutWhen working with GPIO (general purpose input/output) pins of microcontroller you must be aware of few things. Some people think it is enough to know how to program but often you MUST know few basic things about hardware so that you can prevent hardware damage as well as to make sure that device will work correctly.
Here are basic you will need about microcontroller pins.

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plllogoA tutorial or overview about the basic concepts of a phase locked loop, PLL, detailing how it works and how they may be designed.

The phase locked loop or PLL is a particularly flexible circuit building block. The phase locked loop, PLL can be used for a variety of radio frequency applications, and accordingly the PLL is found in many radio receivers as well as other pieces of equipment.


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microcontroller architecturWhat is a microcontroller?
The best way to explain what a microcontroller is, is to start with your computer. Your desktop computer (or laptop) is comprised of multiple parts, a CPU (such as a Pentium or Celeron), some RAM, a hard disk, a keyboard and mouse and a monitor screen. Programs are stored on the hard disk and run on the CPU, with temporary data stored in RAM. You can run multiple programs at a time by having one 'master program' called an operating system (such as Linux, Windows or Mac OS X) and that master program keeps track of things for you.

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Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Tutorial



Pulse Width Modulation – Using digital pulses to create some analog value other than just ‘high’ and ‘low’ signal levels. Many digital systems are powered by a 5-Volt power supply, so if you filter a signal that has a 50% duty cycle you get an average voltage of 2.5 Volts. Other duty cycles produce any voltage in the range of 0 to 100% of the ‘high’ voltage, depending upon the PWM resolution.

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  • Communication


    For communication with outside world and other components microcontroller uses many different kinds of communication. Here you will find detailed explanation on how each of these communication protocols. Details of principles how the work, what you must know before you can use them. And when finished here you can go to tutorial sections for specific family and get complete example codes and detailed description on specific microcontroller family. These are UART, I2C, SPI, USB…


  • Measurement


    Basic functions that every device does are measurement and control. That is why it is important to know how to properly measure something and what sensor to use.. Here you will find explanations on these topics to help you with implementing hardware for your microcontroller project.


  • control


    As previously mentioned Control is one of most important things in every project. Weather you need to control some DC motor using PWM, timer circuits with NE555, Using servo motors, Using PID regulation or any kind or regulation you will find useful articles here describing basic term from this are that you need to know before you can start making your project. Here are mentioned only few of areas this category of covers. PLL frequency regulation… list is endless. When you get the basics you can get example codes written in microcontroller C compiles on tutorials page or find complete project with source code and all documentation in projects section of the site.


  • Other


    General descriptions not fitted in any specific category from field of electronics.


  • Microcontrollers


    General explanations about microcontroller specific topics. What are GPIO pins, TTL levels, Reset circuit.. If you have just started to work with microcontrollers and do not have much knowledge about them than here are useful texts to read before you go to tutorials or complete projects section of and continue learning about world of intelligent electronics.


  • IR
  • Gas Sensors


    This category contain articles about gas sensors, their principles of work. There are several common techniques of gas sensing, such as electrochemical, catalytic, infrared etc. Found out more information about carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, LPG, oxygen and many more gas sensors. Explanation about common schematics and microcontroller usage are given. Visit