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ir remoteThe cheapest way to remotely control a device within a visible range is via Infra-Red light. Almost all audio and video equipment can be controlled this way nowadays. Due to this wide spread use the required components are quite cheap, thus making it ideal for us hobbyists to use IR control for our own projects.
This part of my knowledge base will explain the theory of operation of IR remote control, and some of the protocols that are in use in consumer electronics.

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This protocol is designed by Philips and transmitters are produced by Philips (SAA3008) and ST (M3004). Personally I have never seen this protocol being used in real applications. All information on this page is derived from the data sheet of the Philips SAA3008 and the ST M3004 (10624.pdf).

There are 2 small differences between the two competitor ICs. The Philips IC has two modes of operation, one which is compatible with the ST chip and one which can handle up to 20 sub-system addresses. The ST chip has the capability of switching the modulation carrier off.

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There is not much info out there about the RCA protocol so I basically took a remote (an XBOX remote that uses the RCA protocol) and started analyzing the flow. I also had help from looking at the lirc remote archive.It is actually quite similar to the NEC protocol.

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RC-MM was defined by Philips to be a multi-media IR protocol to be used in wireless keyboards, mice and game pads. For these purposes the commands had to be short and have low power requirements.
Whether the protocol is actually used for these purposes today is unknown to me. What I do know is that some Nokia digital satellite receivers use the protocol (9800 series).

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  • Communication


    For communication with outside world and other components microcontroller uses many different kinds of communication. Here you will find detailed explanation on how each of these communication protocols. Details of principles how the work, what you must know before you can use them. And when finished here you can go to tutorial sections for specific family and get complete example codes and detailed description on specific microcontroller family. These are UART, I2C, SPI, USB…


  • Measurement


    Basic functions that every device does are measurement and control. That is why it is important to know how to properly measure something and what sensor to use.. Here you will find explanations on these topics to help you with implementing hardware for your microcontroller project.


  • control


    As previously mentioned Control is one of most important things in every project. Weather you need to control some DC motor using PWM, timer circuits with NE555, Using servo motors, Using PID regulation or any kind or regulation you will find useful articles here describing basic term from this are that you need to know before you can start making your project. Here are mentioned only few of areas this category of covers. PLL frequency regulation… list is endless. When you get the basics you can get example codes written in microcontroller C compiles on tutorials page or find complete project with source code and all documentation in projects section of the site.


  • Other


    General descriptions not fitted in any specific category from field of electronics.


  • Microcontrollers


    General explanations about microcontroller specific topics. What are GPIO pins, TTL levels, Reset circuit.. If you have just started to work with microcontrollers and do not have much knowledge about them than here are useful texts to read before you go to tutorials or complete projects section of and continue learning about world of intelligent electronics.


  • IR
  • Gas Sensors


    This category contain articles about gas sensors, their principles of work. There are several common techniques of gas sensing, such as electrochemical, catalytic, infrared etc. Found out more information about carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, LPG, oxygen and many more gas sensors. Explanation about common schematics and microcontroller usage are given. Visit